1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following latitudinal extent is relevant for the extent of India’s area.

(a) 8°41’N – 35°7’N

(b) 8°4’N – 37°6’N

(c) 8°4’N – 35°6’N

(d) 6°45’N – 37°6’N

(ii) Which one of the following countries shares the longest land frontier with India?

(a) Bangladesh

(b) China

(c) Pakistan

(d) Myanmar

(iii) Which one of the following countries is larger in area than India?

(a) China

(b) Egypt

(c) France

(d) Iran

(iv) Which one of the following longitudes is the standard meridian for India?

(a) 69°30’E

(b) 82°30’E

(c) 75°30’E

(d) 90°30’E

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Does India need to have more than one standard time? If yes, why do you think so?

Yes, India must have more than one standard time.

  • There is a time variation of 2 hours between Easternmost and the Westernmost parts of our country. The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh than in Gujrat.
  • This is because the earth is tilted and also it rotates in east to west direction. So, while rotation, the Eastern parts of the world experiences the sun rays earlier as compared to the Western parts of the world.
  • Many countries like USA, Canada and Russia have more than one standard time because their longitudinal extent is large. India’s longitudinal extent is also 30° approximately. Therefore, it is advisable to use more than one standard time.

(ii) What are the implications of India having a long coastline?

India has a long coastline of 7516.6 km.

  • India is a southward extension of the Asian continent. The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India.
  • The deccan peninsular protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with west Asia, Africa and Europe from the Western coast and with Southeast Asia and East Asia from the Eastern coast.
  • No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has an indeed, it is India’s eminent position in the Indian ocean which justifies the naming of an ocean after it.

(iii) How is the latitudinal spread of India advantageous to her?

There are three major advantages of latitudinal extent –

  1. Tropic of Cancer – It divides India into two parts. Southern part is in the tropical zone while the Northern part is in the temperate zone. Therefore, biodiversity in India is exceptional.
  2. It also brings climatic diversity in India which has many advantages and makes India a sub-continent.
  3. As we move from Kanya Kumari to Jammu and Kashmir, duration of day and night decreases by more than 4 1/2 hours.

(iv) While the sun rises earlier in the east, say Nagaland and also sets earlier, how do the watches at Kohima and New Delhi show the same time?

The watches show same time because India follows one standard time all over its land. There is general understanding among the countries of the world to select the Standard Meridian in multiples of 7°30′ of longitude. Hence, 82°30′ is chosen as the Standard Meridian of India and the time along the Standard Meridian of India passing through Mirzapur is taken as the Standard Time for the whole country.

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